Retrieval of NO2vertical profiles from ground-based UV-visible measurements: Method and validation

first_imgVertical profiles of NO2 are retrieved from ground-based UV-visible slant columns by sequential estimation, using a forward model that consists of a stacked box photochemical model and a radiative transfer model. The retrieval method is characterized, and a rigorous error analysis is presented. The vertical resolution of the retrieved profiles is shown to vary from 5 to 10 km, depending on the retrieval altitude. The retrieved profiles are found to be moderately sensitive to the assumed vertical profiles of ozone and aerosol, to the range of solar zenith angles of the observations, and to the error in the slant column. However, in the altitude range 10 to 35 km they are relatively insensitive to a priori information and agreed well with profiles from simultaneous balloon-borne measurementslast_img read more

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Assessment of Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth in CMIP5 models: historical bias and forcing response

first_imgThe development of the deep Southern Ocean winter mixed layer in the climate models participating in the fifth Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) is assessed. The deep winter convection regions are key to the ventilation of the ocean interior, and changes in their properties have been related to climate change in numerous studies. Their simulation in climate models is consistently too shallow, too light and shifted equatorward compared to observations. The shallow bias is mostly associated with an excess annual-mean freshwater input at the sea surface that over-stratifies the surface layer and prevents deep convection from developing in winter. In contrast, modeled future changes are mostly associated with a reduced heat loss in winter that leads to even shallower winter mixed layers. The mixed layers shallow most strongly in the Pacific basin under future scenarios, and this is associated with a reduction of the ventilated water volume in the interior. We find a strong state dependency for the future change of mixed-layer depth, with larger future shallowing being simulated by models with larger historical mixed-layer depths. Given that most models are biased shallow, we expect that most CMIP5 climate models might underestimate the future winter mixed-layer shallowing, with important implications for the sequestration of heat, and gases such as carbon dioxide, and therefore for climate.last_img read more

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Measurement of ammonia emissions from temperate and sub-polar seabird colonies

first_imgThe chemical breakdown of marine derived reactive nitrogen transported to the land as seabird guano represents a significant source of ammonia (NH3) in areas far from other NH3 sources. Measurements made at tropical and temperate seabird colonies indicate substantial NH3 emissions, with emission rates larger than many anthropogenic point sources. However, several studies indicate that thermodynamic processes limit the amount of NH3 emitted from guano, suggesting that the percentage of guano volatilizing as NH3 may be considerably lower in colder climates. This study undertook high resolution temporal ammonia measurements in the field and coupled results with modelling to estimate NH3 emissions at a temperate puffin colony and two sub-polar penguin colonies (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands and Bird Island, South Georgia) during the breeding season. These emission rates are then compared with NH3 volatilization rates from other climates. Ammonia emissions were calculated using a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, resulting in mean emissions of 5 μg m-2 s-1 at the Isle of May, 12 μg m-2 s-1 at Signy Island and 9 μg m-2 s-1 at Bird Island. The estimated percentage of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 5% on the Isle of May, 3% on Signy and 2% on Bird Island. These values are much smaller than the percentage of guano nitrogen volatilized in tropical contexts (31-65%). The study confirmed temperature, wind speed and water availability have a significant influence on the magnitude of NH3 emissions, which has implications for reactive nitrogen in both modern remote regions and pre-industrial atmospheric composition and ecosystem interactions.last_img read more

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REPUBLICAN LOGIC ON GUNS MAKES ME TWITCH

first_imgRaging Moderate by Will DurstSadly fascinating to endure another predictable dance performed on the national stage by our elected politicians in response to the recent horrendous concert shooting in Las Vegas. Well, not a dance, really, more like the choreographed twitching of an unruly mob. Both parties retired to their respective corners while spasmodically jerking and mumbling hushed gobbledygook that even first graders could recite verbatim in a show and tell version of hypocritical cliches.As surprising as milk-soaked hay after a missile strike on a dairy farm, Republicans slowly shook their heads somberly intoning that in the wake of such a tragic tragedy, this is neither the time nor the place to discuss gun control. Out of respect for the dead and injured we should wait for them to heal or die. And our thoughts and prayers are with the victims and their families.Meanwhile, the Democrats pointed out that the only right time and right place to talk about gun control is right here and right now because these appalling incidents happen with such frequency we’re stuck in a constant state of perpetual bereavement. Experiencing a remarkable lack of intermissions.The mythical waiting period is nothing but a ploy to insure nothing gets done, obviously the GOP’s intent all along. (And quite possibly, a secret agenda of the Dems as well.) And our thoughts and prayers are with the victims and their families.The difference being, this time, both sides may actually reach a compromise on the regulation of something called the “bump stock,” a device that can turn a semi-automatic weapon, more automatic. Battlfield automatic. Video-game automatic.But considering they didn’t do anything after the slaughter of 6-year-olds at Sandy Hook Elementary, the chances of our esteemed representatives accomplishing real change is similar to that of our president admitting he made a mistake. About anything.The NRA chimed in to say they were not dead set against this new restriction, which seems to indicate the accessory in question is a novelty item and not very widespread or effective. Like banning the use of flasks in the hollow shafts of putters on the PGA Tour. Telling bakeries to give up the habanero sprinkles. Forcing baseball players to use round laces instead of flat ones on their cleats.The Gun Owners of America maintains its opposition to any regulation, at all. Ever. These guys make the NRA look like a radical wing of the ACLU. You know that new phenomena of conservative politicians getting primaried from the right, well, that’s what the GOA threatens to do to the NRA. “You want extreme, we’ve got your vastly more extremer right here.”In the wake of Stephen Paddock’s rain of terror, a GOA spokesman said “America will never truly be safe until all the gun-free zones are eliminated.” You know, like schools and churches and hospitals. Because that’s everyone wants; pre-teens playing cops and robbers with real guns.Their point is gun violence can be stopped by more guns. This is the kind of logic that makes ordinary people chew their fingers off to the third knuckle. So, the best way to deal with floods is more water? To combat concussions, more hammers to the head. Got yourself a rat problem? What you need to do is meet more members of Congress.FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img read more

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Rowe’s achieves first with concession in Asda

first_imgCornish craft bakery Rowe’s has joined with Asda to launch the supermarket’s first in-store savoury bakery concession.It was officially opened on 16 July at the Asda store in St Austell, Cornwall, and features a 12ft long hot counter and 12ft ambient sections, as well as a food-to-go offering at the front of the store.Asda’s change manager Roy Clark said the supermarket had trialled concessions in other areas, which had proved popular and was keen to develop an offer in the bakery sector. “Sales of local products have increased by 41% at Asda this year and this venture with Rowe’s demonstrates our commitment to a partnership approach to working with West Country brands.”The venture builds on Rowe’s previous relationship with Asda in the West Country, which has seen the bakery supply breads, cakes and pasties to the supermarket for the past 15 years. Rowe’s also supplies frozen unbaked savouries nationally for both the in-store bakeries and Asda Cafés.Paul Pearce, director of marketing at Rowe’s, said the concession would allow the firm to put its products in front of the consumer in a different environment to its high street shops, and there were no plans for more concessions. “Its performance will be carefully reviewed and any steps to take this format forward will be determined by its success,” he added.last_img read more

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The community builders

first_imgWhen the leadership of Harvard College changes hands later this summer from interim Dean Donald Pfister to incoming Dean Rakesh Khurana, undergraduates will find that while the life experiences and research backgrounds of the two couldn’t be more different, their focus on the job of dean is the same.Both Pfister and Khurana believe strongly that an important role for the dean is to foster and build the College community of learning.“My goals were modest in a way, but they were really about reaching out and connecting with the students, and working within the College to make sure we weren’t merely in a transition, but moving the College forward,” said Pfister, the Asa Gray Professor of Systematic Botany. “When I think about the year, a lot of what we have been able to do has been about community, which is good because that is where I started when I came in.”Pfister was named interim dean in July, taking over for Evelynn M. Hammonds, who completed her five-year term as dean shortly after Commencement 2013. As Faculty of Arts and Sciences Dean Michael D. Smith put together a search committee to find a replacement, he appointed Pfister on an interim basis.Immediately, Pfister, who has taught at Harvard for 40 years and had served as master of Kirkland House from 1982 to 2000, sought to connect directly with students by word and action. He began sending all undergraduates periodic email messages touching on a wide variety of topics, such as some of the incredible things College students were doing, the latest book he was reading, and — he’s a botanist — the trees of the Yard and certain fungi he had come across.“Nearly every conversation I have had with a student has almost always started with, ‘I just love your emails.’ I was a surprised because when I send an email out to students in my class, they never read them. But these emails seem to have been very widely read,” Pfister said. “I was thinking emails were kind of retro, but they worked, and I think they worked because it set the tone that someone was listening. It goes back to community.”In addition to his emails, Pfister made it a point to be out around the campus, visiting the Houses, attending festivities and performances, and meeting with students as much as possible. One winter morning, he rode the shuttle, where he interacted with students and even handed out bookmarks with his office hours listed on the back.“I was concerned office hours were just going to be a thing where students would come in and complain, but it was really an opportunity to help students, and to direct them to resources,” he said. “And it was a great way to hear what was really on the minds of the students.”While his research interests are different, Khurana is coming into the job on a path that has some similarities to that which Pfister traveled. Both are highly respected teachers, veterans of various committees, and have served as House masters. In fact, as dean, Khurana will continue to serve as co-master of Cabot House.His vision for the future of the College builds on the foundation that Pfister has laid.“We want to ensure we are providing students a deeply transformative experience, one that is transformative intellectually, socially, and personally, that will prepare them for a life of service and leadership,” Khurana said. “Our students have the opportunity to interact with the best faculty in the world, who are doing research that is changing the way we think about and understand the human condition. They are asking fundamental questions about the nature of life and where we come from, and imagining new futures.”The Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development at Harvard Business School (HBS) and professor of sociology in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS), Khurana said that for nearly 400 years Harvard has produced leaders and shaped academia, and that should continue.“Harvard College should be seen as the leading College in the world and will set the standard for liberal arts colleges for the next 100 years. We should be providing a model for other schools to revitalize and reenergize their programs,” Khurana said. “This is who we are. Our students leave here and exert ripples across the world.”last_img read more

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Sensitive art

first_img The daytime look of Geros’ public art installation at the Susan S. and Kenneth L. Wallach Garden at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Kris Snibbe/Harvard Staff Photographer Latent (e)Scapes Recent Harvard Graduate School of Design graduate Christina Leigh Geros is the winner of Radcliffe’s biennial public art competition. Her exhibit, “Latent (e)Scapes,” consists of 1,600, 1/8-inch acrylic rods that glow. Kris Snibbe/Harvard Staff Photographer A jury of Harvard faculty members including Radcliffe Dean Lizabeth Cohen selects the winner.“The public art competition invites students throughout the Harvard community to be part of Radcliffe’s mission of advanced study by being creative outside the classroom,” said Cohen. “Latent (e)Scapes is a breathtaking visual statement. And it’s also an inspiring blend of art, science, and landscape that captures well Radcliffe’s commitment to supporting work that crosses disciplines in new ways.”Inspiration struck Geros during January break in 2013. On a drive from the East Coast to Kansas, she was taken with the waving dune grasses along the New England shore and their icy inland counterparts — “a family of tall grasses frozen in time” that blanketed much of the Midwest state.“I had this idea that if those grasses were of a synthetic material but within a naturalistic environment to some degree … their movement would have this sort of natural state to it, [but] the synthetic-ness would call your attention to something seemingly out of place.”For the installation, Geros worked with Cambridge Landscape Co. on the fabrication of the nine different “scapes.” Her colleagues at the design collective SHO, GSD alumni Gregory Thomas Spaw and Lee-Su Huang, along with interactive design specialist Jake Marsico, helped her fine-tune the computer elements and the lighting. When it was complete, “the interactivity of it became everything we could imagine it to be,” she said.It also became a way to engage people with art in a different way.Some of the best public art makes “a statement about your interaction within that space or that place’s connection to a larger environment,” Geros said.Working in the natural environment brought a unique set of challenges. The no-mow grass was supposed to reach between four and eight inches, but Geros quickly noticed some patches weren’t getting anywhere near that long. The reason? “Hungry bunnies,” she said of the rabbits that make the garden lawn their regular twilight meal. “They are mowing the grass.”As the seasons turn, weather will become an important factor. Geros tested a few acrylic rods last winter and they held up to February’s frigid temperatures. She also planted a few rods near the GSD campus to check their durability under the weight of the snow. They didn’t bend, but she remains realistic about the primacy of New England winters. A repeat of last year’s would temporarily put her work out of sight.“Fingers crossed,” she said, “I really hope we don’t have a serious winter.”Latent (e)Scapes Geros: “I had this idea that if those grasses were of a synthetic material but within a naturalistic environment to some degree … their movement would have this sort of natural state to it, [but] the synthetic-ness would call your attention to something seemingly out of place.” Photo by Kevin Grady Inspiration struck Geros during January break in 2013. On a drive from the East Coast to Kansas, she was taken with the waving dune grasses along the New England shore and their icy inland counterparts — “a family of tall grasses frozen in time” that blanketed much of the Midwest state. Photo by Kevin Grady Growing up in east Tennessee, Christina Leigh Geros reveled in the natural fireworks exploding nightly in her yard.“When I think about summer or even spring and fall, I think about lightning bugs, because our lawns would just be covered in these glittering lights. To me, that’s an evening outdoor space,” said the Harvard Graduate School of Design grad, whose next stop is Indonesia for a year of digital storytelling on a Fulbright-National Geographic Fellowship.What she’ll leave behind at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study tells a physical story of nature, movement, space, and especially light. Those vivid firefly memories inspired a particularly brilliant feature in Geros’ installation at the Susan S. and Kenneth L. Wallach Garden. Unveiled in May as the winner of Radcliffe’s biennial public art competition, “Latent (e)Scapes” consists of 1,600, 1/8-inch acrylic rods that glow.In the daytime the translucent bars — planted in nine berms of long Pennsylvania sedge and a no-mow fescue mix — resemble long, sprouting extensions of the surrounding yellow-green grass. At night, LEDs embedded in the tubes transform the garden into a glowing landscape sensitive to its surroundings.The rods are connected to sensors that relay information to an intricate system of computers that regulate the light. They change color, shifting from solid white to red and orange, and fluctuating in intensity in response to motion from passersby. Soon, another computer connection will enable the rods to react to natural forces such as heat, wind, and humidity.The competition, which began in 2013, offers degree students from across the University, regardless of concentration, the chance to submit a design for the garden space in Radcliffe Yard. At night, embedded LEDs transform the garden into a glowing landscape sensitive to its surroundings. Kris Snibbe/Harvard Staff Photographer <a href=”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k6aXqgu8NOI” rel=”nofollow” target=”_blank”> <img src=”https://img.youtube.com/vi/k6aXqgu8NOI/0.jpg” alt=”0″ title=”How To Choose The Correct Channel Type For Your Video Content ” /> </a>last_img read more

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Accelerate with Dell EMC Unity 4.5 Software

first_imgMore features, higher quality for the Dell EMC Unity storage platformWe’ve always aimed to lead the market in midrange storage, and for many years, that’s exactly what we’ve achieved.But we know customers are constantly looking for more. We also know it’s a competitive field. And we know, too, that you, our valued Partners, are always keen to find new ways to demonstrate value.That’s why we never stand still – and a case in point is the latest software announcement for the Dell EMC Unity platform. Dell EMC Unity 4.5 introduces new features and quality improvements that are collectively designed to keep you where you belong – at the forefront in serving customers’ midrange storage needs.Key featuresDell EMC Unity 4.5 provides new levels of functionality and efficiency.Advanced deduplication using dynamic pattern detection eliminates multiple copies of similar data blocks, and delivers savings of up to three times overall data reduction. It’s controlled by a function-specific switch under an existing Data Reduction option, and is settable at per LUN/File System/Data Store level.File management improvements are achieved via Metrosync Manager, enhancing orchestration, replication granularity and failover capabilities for synchronous file replication. It continuously monitors the replication sessions and automatically initiates failover when issues are detected, thereby minimizing downtime.A file-level retention software feature has been added, protecting files from modification or deletion until a specified retention date. This allows customers to create a permanent, unalterable set of files and directories to ensure data integrity, thereby simplifying the task of archiving data for administrators.Software-defined storage with high availability is provided courtesy of Dell EMC Unity Virtual Storage Appliance (VSA) Professional Edition. It’s offered as a two-node, two-core and Tie Breaker Node, for 10, 25 and 50TB capacity offerings.Together, these and other features of Dell EMC Unity 4.5 represent significant improvements in performance and flexibility for your customers.And for you, Dell EMC Unity 4.5 is a demonstration of the innovation, quality and efficiency you bring to your customers – and to which you add significant value as our trusted Partners.Midrange storage is a big and busy market. Boost your business by exploring the benefits of Dell EMC Unity 4.5 in depth.Unity 4.5 value: explore the Knowledge CenterDiscover real-world experiences in this paperlast_img read more

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Peggy Pfaltzgraff-Holden Named to First ‘”Top Women in Grocery”

first_imgWest Bridgewater, MA (Tuesday, August 7, 2007) — Shaws Supermarket announced today that Shaw’s Vice President of Retail Operations, Peggy Pfaltzgraff-Holden, was named to Progressive Grocer’s first annual “Top Women in Grocery” listing for her outstanding efforts, involvement, leadership, and success in the supermarket industry. Of the fifty featured profiles, Pfaltzgraff-Holden was spotlighted alongside five other honorees from Shaws parent company, SUPERVALU, combining for the largest representation of a single grocery company on the list. Progressive Grocer is a leading grocery industry trade magazine. Peggy Pfaltzgraff-Holden serves as a regional VP of Operations in the company’s mountain region, overseeing 110 Shaw’s stores in four New England states — Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and northern Massachusetts. Pfaltzgraff-Holden’s held many retail positions in her 25 year career prior to coming to Shaw’s in July 2006, including director of store development of the drug division, district manager, regional HR manager, regional operations manager, division customer service manager and store director. During that time, she received several awards; the most recent being two Awards for Excellence – the 2002 Drug Division Eagle Award and the 2005 Drug Division Presidents Excellence Award, which are presented to an individual who represents outstanding contributions, executing at the highest level of the business and the delivery of the best bottom line results. Pfaltzgraff-Holden was also awarded the Dale Carnegie Highest Achievement Award.Through her passion for excellence, she provides strong leadership and support for her seven districts which have over 10,000 associates. She also encourages associates within her region to take an active role in the company’s CORUS program; a volunteer initiative started by Albertson’s Inc., In addition, Pfaltzgraff-Holden is one of the first organizers of MESA (Mentoring, Encouraging, Supporting and Achieving), the companys affinity group for women in management. “Peggy works hard day-in and day-out to serve our customers and our associates better than anyone else in the industry. Her knowledge and expertise make her an invaluable asset to the company and we are privileged to have her as part of our leadership team,” said Cindy Garnett, Shaw’s Vice President of Human Resources.In addition to Pfaltzgraff-Holden, SUPERVALUs executive vice president and CFO, Pamela Knous; executive vice president and COO of Supply Chain Services, Janel Haugarth; Shop ‘N Save president, Marlene Gebhard; ACME president, Judy Spires; and Retail West senior vice president of merchandising and marketing, Sue Klug were all recognized as grocery industry leaders.The list of women was selected by Progressive Grocer editors and was based on industry nominations. Several factors contributing to the choice included leadership and influence within both the nominees company and the greater supermarket industry, areas of responsibility, career accolades and achievements, industry and community involvement, and philanthropic activities. As a company whose customer demographics vary significantly across the country and whose primary customers are women, Shaw’s Supermarket understands that a diverse workforce is a vital component to its long-term success. Diversity empowers Shaws to make the best decisions based on product selection, merchandising, and marketing that are most relevant to its customers as part of its overall business commitment to being the best place to work, shop, and invest in the industry. “We appreciate the value that diversity offers and we constantly aim to diversify our workforce,” said Garnett. Diversity energizes associates, fosters creativity and innovation, and ultimately improves overall performance,” continued Garnett. “We are proud to have strong women in leadership roles and are excited about the growing presence of female leadership within the grocery industry.” Shaw’s, Osco and Star Market are a division of SUPERVALU INC. Throughout the six New England states, there are more than 200 store locations employing approximately 30,000 associates. SUPERVALU INC. is one of the largest companies in the United States grocery channel with 2,500 retail grocery locations holding leading market positions. SUPERVALU also provides distribution and related logistics support services to more than 5,000 grocery retail endpoints across the country. SUPERVALU currently has approximately 200,000 employees. For more information, please visit www.shaws.com(link is external) or www.supervalu.com(link is external).last_img read more

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War College Aims to Build the Colombia of the Future

first_imgA few years ago we had almost 250,000 hectares and the year before last we reduced the area almost 49,000 hectares. However, due to some internal issues, the spraying of glyphosate was banned as of October 1st. Using the spray was a good strategy. It was not the only strategy, but it had the greatest impact. This has caused crops to be reintroduced. So now there is concern over the issue of drug trafficking, and we have a lot of experience on how to fight it with the Police and the [U.S.] Embassy. So this is an issue that draws the attention of other schools. Our Military academic programs include the Military Studies Course to train future generals and admirals, the Staff Course to train future lieutenant colonels and commanders, the CAMIN course for Military attachés, who will serve as defense attachés and Military attachés abroad… DIÁLOGO: What is the role and focus of the Colombian Army War College? The War College is building the Colombia of the future, and we are bringing together the country’s political forces. The strategic concept of what we are doing is basically divided into three areas: first, cooperation and development for stabilization; second, to ensure territorial control in order to protect institutions; and third, institutional strengthening of the Armed Forces, transparency, preserving comprehensive judicial integrity and many other things… So when we say we want to participate in cooperation and development, we have a whole portfolio of issues in service of the community. That is what we want to offer and that is also what has attracted foreign attention. But we know that the post-conflict era will involve conflict and we have several international advisers from the United States and other countries helping us work through this, and none of them is foreseeing a simple scenario… because the aftermath of war is harder than war itself. We are preparing for the worst so that we are ready, and we are doing all of this work at the War College. It’s interesting to read our country’s leaders, this General Salazar, he knows the facts and what the country’s needs are and where it is heading, this interview should be published by national media so the people can read and learn about the leader Excellent article, General Salazar is a great soldier I am in complete agreement with your assessment regarding the post conflict era which will be as bad as the conflict they have had over the past 50 years, I congratulate you, General, for the contribution you are making to the Government.. Each country should apply its own rules and laws respecting human rights as long as they are beneficial and healthy for their people keeping society at peace Meanwhile, the War College has several agreements/exchange programs with the European Union and the European Security and Defense College. We have one with the NATO Defense College… For two years we have been NATO security allies and in that process, we have strengthened ties in the field of educational doctrine, which is my area, with that institution. Last year we participated in activities in Austria. This year, in May, we will go to the [War] College in Warsaw to give a presentation. We are also close with the Defense College of South Korea and almost all other similar colleges, with our counterparts. We also have strong ties with the Air Force, Army, and Navy War Colleges in the United States. In Washington, we have agreements with the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies… in short, almost all of our counterpart schools. Right now we have 28 foreign students. It may not seem like a very significant number, but it is significant with regard to the countries with whom we have agreements. For example, we currently have students from the United States, Korea, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, and Mexico, and we have had students from Guatemala. These countries are important in the international arena and are friends of ours in our global efforts, such as Korea and other countries that are here regularly. We also offer other extensive courses for the Military based on their needs, and our continuing education courses open to the civil society feature four master’s degrees: a Master of Security and Defense, a Master of Strategy and Geopolitics, a Master of Cyber Security and Cyber Defense, and a Master of Human Rights and International Law in Armed Conflicts. These four programs are very distinctive and quite unique both within the country, as well as throughout South America. All of these factors make it a very special school because of its capabilities, its organization, its academic level, and the mission that it fulfills for the Armed Forces. Here, we offer academic programs for the Military and academic programs that are open to [the civil] society. Right now the BACRIM –criminal gangs, also known as maras in Central America – are on the rise. But at the international level, according to the Palermo Convention on the one hand, these are called Organized Criminal Groups. Under the Geneva Convention, on the other hand, they are defined as Organized Armed Groups (OAG). The BACRIM vacillate between these two definitions. If they do not have significant organizational skills, unified control or control over a territory, they are considered Organized Criminal Groups and fought under Human Rights law. But if the BACRIM have a centralized command and control over territories, they are considered OAG and fought under IHL. We must be very careful with that distinction in our doctrine and our operations, because otherwise it can cause problems. These are examples of the kinds of complexities we face in our support of the Police. However, it is necessary, it was an order of the President and it is something that is also happening around the world. Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: Students who come to the War College have been selected by the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Each force conducts a selection process to identify individuals for enrollment, and what we do here, through very special lines of education, is strengthen their skills and expertise. The most important area of expertise is leadership. Other areas of expertise that we strengthen here are administration, management, strategic planning, conducting operations, and interinstitutional advisory services, so that when they leave, they can participate in recommendations at the local and regional level with civilian leaders. Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: Here, we rely a lot on scholars, academics, specialists in doctrine, and international experts studying these conflicts, according to whom this role should ideally be limited. First, we must demilitarize the Police, which is militarized in Colombia. Someday, when we get back to normalcy as a country, our Police should be demilitarized and the Armed Forces should focus on their specific responsibilities, which are to protect the borders and national defense. It will take time to reach that desired state here in Colombia. We have created a scale, a spectrum, with the aim of achieving a return to normalcy by 2030. We have 14 years to continue ascending towards normalcy and to achieve this we must achieve stability. Currently, there are still sources of instability –social, political, economic and security factors. So our future plans in the post-conflict era, which is expected to begin in a few months, are focused on efforts oriented towards the stabilization of unstable areas. Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: Right now, the Armed Forces are making progress on a system of joint operations (between all forces), coordinated operations (with the Police) and interagency operations (with other state agencies), as well as joint operations with neighboring countries. So our relationships are conducted through agreements with state agencies and jointly coordinated plans. We provide Military assistance in some areas to the Police. For example, the main function of the Police is to combat drug trafficking, illegal mining, extortion, kidnapping, smuggling, arms trafficking, land dispossession… And we in the Armed Forces have been helping the Police with these issues for two years, by order of the President. Here in the Americas and in various forums that we have participated in, we are making progress on the issue of how the Armed Forces and the Army are assuming functions in support of the Police. It is an area of concern, but if it is not done, these problems will increase. And if we do not support the Police, these problems will overflow. So we do it out of necessity, but under defined roles and with the legal protections key to the conduct of Military actions, because the work of the Police is covered under Human Rights law, while the Armed Forces operate under the IHL [International Humanitarian Law] for armed conflict . These are two different types of the laws of war. So if we are going to support the Police under Human Rights law, it makes it difficult for us to use weapons. DIÁLOGO: What is the importance of the ESDEGUE subsidiaries, such as the Regional Center for Strategic Security Studies (CREES)? Why was there a need to create it as a separate entity from the educational program offered at the ESDEGUE? Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: The War College has several facets. First, it is the Armed Forces’ highest center of education. Second, it is a school for advanced training; it is a think tank, a research center, and an advisor to the Ministry of Defense, the General Command and, on some occasions, the federal government. It is a school that is open to all branches of service. There are students here from the Army, Navy, and Air Force, all in the same room, sharing the same curriculum and the same goals. In addition, it is an international school. We have teachers and international students from many countries throughout the Americas and some from Europe and Asia. By Dialogo April 07, 2016 DIÁLOGO: But do you believe that supporting the Police is the new standard, the new role of the Armed Forces, or do you believe that it is a temporary role? they include allowing two or three countries that have a common problem to unite, regardless of their politics or other interests, to deal with it. Therefore, the CREES also constitutes a good way to combine these efforts against these threats. The CREES is also a think tank. We have researchers here. We are establishing agreements for research networks with other institutes. However, the CREES belongs to the War College; the War College has some agreements in place with other institutions and national universities and internationally, thus becoming part of this research network as a think tank. In addition, the CREES is also becoming an advisory and consulting body to the Ministry of Defense, which originally had the idea of creating the Center and finally achieved it with the support of the United States. DIÁLOGO: What programs are offered together with other partner nations in the region, such as the U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) and its components? DIÁLOGO: What is its significance today, 107 years after its foundation? What are your plans for the future of the War College? Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: We are nearing the end of an armed conflict, after more than 50 years of war with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The FARC are in Military negotiations with the government because we achieved victory and [the FARC] became convinced that they could not reach their aims by force of arms. Diálogo recently visited the Colombian Army War College (ESDEGUE) in Bogotá, where it had the opportunity to talk with its director, Major General Juan Carlos Salazar Salazar. Among many topics, he discussed ESDEGUE’s significance as a standard bearer for the region, its unique curriculum, its Center for Strategic Security Studies, and the process of change for which the country is preparing its Armed Forces based on an ambitious project launched from the school itself. Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: Nowadays this importance is measured on a bilateral basis. Agreements are expected to be beneficial for both parties, so that through these agreements and close working relationships we can work together on the current issue of joint threats to the region. From the War College, we contribute good strategies, good initiatives, and a good understanding of threats to national security and defense as the main issue. From the War College, this rigor, this research, and this methodology will always be solid elements to contribute to the security and defense of all states. All states look to the War College to understand and jointly consider strategies to combat threats. DIÁLOGO: How does ESDEGUE cooperate with the general and sectoral commands in developing doctrine to train and use ground forces? We have identified 17 areas of instability, five at sea and 12 on land, where if we apply all of the stability interventions, we will make significant progress towards normalization. These sources of instability include criminal gangs, drug trafficking, the lack of infrastructure, the lack of secondary and tertiary roads… If no attention is paid to the basic needs of health, water, and education –these are also factors of instability. There are many factors of instability, not just economic and security-related, that must be solved. To do so, at the War College we have made maps based on nearly 40 factors with the very large undertaking of developing the post-conflict plan. This plan has been under implementation for three months with the help of nearly 400 people from all of the forces involved in the strategic, operational, and tactical areas. We believe that within three months we will complete that plan to fight the factors of instability and get back to normalcy by 2030. It is an ambitious plan that is being achieved with the tools that each force has and it is contributing to a unified action by the state. And the War College, as an academic center, has initiated this great crusade and we are convinced that we are making significant progress in the Military area of operations. We are now taking the model that we have for the Armed Forces of the post-conflict era to other government authorities and the political parties of the country, the council of ministers, as well as other partners, such as the Ambassador of the United States [Kevin Whitaker] and [Lieutenant] General [Joseph] Di Salvo [the Military Deputy Commander of SOUTHCOM], to whom this will be explained on March 15th. It is a model of cooperative Armed Forces. We want to be seen as partners, as Armed Forces sharing in cooperative leadership that is integrated and not solely Military, but that is in sync with our leaders. Our style had been different up to this point in the war, but now there has been a shift to another stage and our contribution to the post-conflict era will be very different and integrated. DIÁLOGO: What is the importance of working together with partner countries such as the United States and others? DIÁLOGO: How does ESDEGUE compare with other similar institutions in the region? Yesterday, for example, we received the War College of the U.S. Air Force, which came not just to visit, but to learn about some of the issues of interest to them. Foremost among these issues was fighting terrorism. Colombia was a different country 10 or 12 years ago, a country under siege that was seen from the outside as possibly an unviable country. After so many years of conflict, we were able to turn the tide, and the balance of power has changed. They wanted to know how it was accomplished. On the issue of drug trafficking, we have gotten together with advisers from countries such as Mexico, under a United States-Mexico-Colombia triangulation, to advise Mexico. We have young people from our Police, Army, and Navy serving as advisers on drug trafficking issues. This issue has lately taken a turn for the worse. We are once again the top cocaine producing country, which is a major concern after having done so well. For example, under Human Rights law, you cannot conduct a bombing campaign, since this falls under IHL. Therefore, you need to update all the legal legislation and that is not easy. It is a process that goes all the way to Congress, and we are in the process of adapting our legislation to enable us to combat these criminal phenomena. Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: CREES’s main partner is the Special Operations Command South, aligned with the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU), and in its short period of time in existence, other partners have emerged, with whom we are now building partnerships. One example is the Security and Defense Network of Latin America (RESDAL) in the south of the country; in Chile we have some important strategic studies centers; and right now we are building some agreements in Mexico and Brazil that we hope to consolidate by the end of the year. But right now, our biggest partner is the United States. The CREES is a vehicle to show the world all the lessons learned and our experiences. These successes that we have had and that are very distinctive worldwide, such as our intelligence operations capabilities, which have been conducted in a clean, transparent manner, with a lot of initiative and dedication. One example is Operation Jaque, which allowed for the rescue [of 15 hostages kidnapped by the FARC in July 2008]. We have conducted many such operations. And there is significant interest from the international community, because we export such lessons. We have accumulated significant capabilities in the operation of nocturnal aerial equipment. After the United States, we are the country that most engages in assault operations, rescues, and casualty evacuation at night. Major General Juan Carlos Salazar Salazar, director of the ESDEGUE: The War College’s mission is to build comprehensive leaders that are prepared to face national security and defense challenges, both at the strategic and operational levels. Here at the War College, we train future generals, admirals and lieutenant colonels. Here in Colombia, there is a confluence of threats that are common to many countries in the region and the world. They have now become transnational threats. Crime is transnational, drug trafficking is transnational, and operating under a system of cooperative security, we can all help each other. So, the CREES also aims to integrate all of these regional efforts to understand the behavior of these threats and build strategies to address them. If we consider the measures to promote mutual trust at the moment, a mechanism that exists within the OAS [Organization of American States] and worldwide –a mechanism for promoting mutual trust – Maj. Gen. Salazar Salazar: There are several factors that make ESDEGUE unique in the region. In terms of our history, we were founded almost 107 years ago, so we have a certain status compared to other schools that are relatively new. In terms of the quality of the teaching programs, we compete with almost every other institution that has master’s degree programs. So we are very observant of how they operate, as a benchmark to make adjustments. Our international teachers also bring us great ideas from their schools. From the academic standpoint, we are updated through them and through the Military attachés who visit us and our attachés who go to other countries. In addition, our 50 years of experience with war is an issue that attracts a lot of attention and draws many people. There is a lot to teach about that, issues such as Integrated Action, which is very much a characteristic of ours, and how to contribute to the stability and consolidation of regions through Military leadership in critical regions. All of these Integrated Action issues receive a lot of attention. There are also new issues, such as illegal mining, which is being used as a source of funding to support terrorist groups. That has also drawn the attention of foreign schools because we also have significant experience in this area. Our experience in combating extortion and kidnapping has also been useful for our neighboring countries to the south and Mexico, who suffer from the same problems. Here, we have had a very successful strategy involving the Police, Navy, and Army with the GAULA groups [Unified Action Groups for Personal Liberty], which are the main tool to fight extortion and kidnapping, working closely with prosecutors and intelligence agencies. So, that type of organization, our experiences, also attracts the attention of friendly countries. DIÁLOGO: What is the profile of the students who attend ESDEGUE? What percentage of students are Colombian Military officers, members of the Armed Forces of friendly nations, and civilians? last_img read more

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